Commonwealth Bank - Report to Shareholders 2003 - Corporate Governance

Corporate Governance

Board of Directors


The role and responsibilities of the Board of Directors are set out in the Board Charter. The responsibilities include:

There is in place a comprehensive set of management delegations to allow management to carry on the business of the Bank.


There are currently 12 Directors of the Bank and details of their experience, qualifications, special responsibilities and attendance at meetings are set out on Our Directors page.

Membership of the Board and Committees is set out below:
Committee Membership

Director Board Membership Nominations Remuneration Audit Risk

J T Ralph, AC Non-executive,
Chairman Chairman Chairman   Chairman

J M Schubert Non-executive,
Member   Chairman  

D V Murray Executive Chief

N R Adler, AO Non-executive,

R J Clairs, AO Non-executive,

A B Daniels, OAM Non-executive,

C R Galbraith, AM Non-executive,

S C Kay Non-executive,

W G Kent, AO Non-executive,

F D Ryan Non-executive,

F J Swan Non-executive,
  Member     Member

B K Ward Non-executive,

Ms S C Kay was appointed as a non-executive Director on 5 March 2003. In accordance with the Bank’s Constitution and the ASX Listing Rules, she will stand for election at the Annual General Meeting to be held on 31 October 2003.

The Constitution of the Bank specifies that:

The Board has established a policy that, with a phasing in provision for existing directors, the term of directors’ appointments would be limited to 12 years (except where succession planning for Chairman and appointment of Chairman requires an extended term. On appointment, the Chairman will be expected to be available for that position for five years). Directors do not stand for re-election after attaining the age of 70.


The Board regularly assesses the independence of each Director. For this purpose, an independent director is a non-executive director whom the Board considers to be independent of management and free of any business or other relationship that could materially interfere with the exercise of unfettered and independent judgment.

In addition to being required to conduct themselves in accordance with the ethical policies of the Bank, Directors are required to be meticulous in their disclosure of any material contract or relationship in accordance with the Corporations Act and this disclosure extends to the interests of family companies and spouses. Directors are required to strictly adhere to the constraints on their participation and voting in relation to matters in which they may have an interest in accordance with the Corporations Act and the Bank’s policies.

Each Director may, from time to time, have personal dealings with the Bank. Each Director is involved with other companies or professional firms which may from time to time have dealings with the Bank. Details of offices held by Directors with other organisations are set out on the Our Directors section and on the Bank's website. Full details of related party dealings are set out in notes to the Company’s accounts as required by law.

All the current non-executive Directors of the Bank have been assessed as independent Directors. In reaching that determination, the Board has taken into account (in addition to the matters set out above):

The Bank does not consider that term of service on the Board is a factor affecting a Director’s ability to act in the best interests of the Bank. Independence is judged against the ability, integrity and willingness of the Director to act. The Board has established a policy limiting Directors’ tenures to ensure that skill sets remain appropriate in a dynamic industry.


Directors participate in an induction program upon appointment and in a refresher programme on a regular basis. The Board has established a program of continuing education to ensure that it is kept up to date with developments in the industry both locally and globally. This includes sessions with local and overseas experts in the particular fields relevant to the Bank’s operations.


The Board has in place a process for annually reviewing its performance, policies and practices. These reviews seek to identify where improvements can be made and also assess the quality and effectiveness of information made available to Directors. Each two years, this process is facilitated by an external consultant, with an internal review conducted in the intervening years. The review includes an assessment of the performance of each Director.

After consideration of the results of the performance assessment, the Board will determine its endorsement of the Directors to stand for re-election at the next Annual General Meeting.

The non-executive Directors meet at least annually, without management, in a forum intended to allow for an open discussion on Board and management performance. This is in addition to the consideration of the Chief Executive Officer’s performance and remuneration which is conducted by the Board in the absence of the Chief Executive Officer.

The Chairman meets annually with the senior executive team to discuss with them the Board’s performance and level of involvement from their perspective.

Selection of Directors

The Nominations Committee has developed a set of criteria for director appointments which have been adopted by the Board. The criteria set the objective of the Board as being as effective, and preferably more effective than the best boards in the comparable peer group. These criteria, which are reviewed annually, ensure that any new appointee is able to contribute to the ongoing effectiveness of the Board, has the ability to exercise sound business judgment, to think strategically and has demonstrated leadership experience, high levels of professional skill and appropriate personal qualities.

The Committee regularly reviews the skill base and experience of existing Directors to enable identification of attributes required in new directors.

An executive search firm is engaged to identify potential candidates based on the identified criteria.

Candidates for appointment as directors are considered by the Nominations Committee, recommended for decision by the Board and, if appointed, stand for election, in accordance with the Constitution, at the next general meeting of shareholders.

On appointment, a letter is provided from the Chairman to the new Director setting out the terms of appointment.


Board policies relevant to the composition and functions of Directors include:

Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

In accordance with the Constitution and the Corporations Act 2001, Directors disclose to the Board any material contract in which they may have an interest. In compliance with section 195 of the Corporations Act 2001, any Director with a material personal interest in a matter being considered by the Board will not be present when the matter is being considered and will not vote on the matter.

Share Trading

The restrictions imposed by law on dealings by Directors in the securities of the Bank have been supplemented by the Board of Directors adopting guidelines which further limit any such dealings by Directors, their spouses, any dependent child, family company or family trust.

The guidelines provide that, in addition to the requirement that Directors not deal in the securities of the Bank or any related company when they have or may be perceived as having relevant unpublished price-sensitive information, Directors are only permitted to deal within certain periods. These periods include between three and 30 days after the announcement of half-yearly and final results, and from three days after release of the annual report until 30 days after the Annual General Meeting. Further, the guidelines require that Directors not deal on the basis of considerations of a short-term nature or to the extent of trading in those securities. Similar restrictions apply to executives of the Bank.

In addition, Bank policy prohibits:

Remuneration Arrangements

Remuneration Committee

The Board has established a Remuneration Committee to:

The policy of the Board is that the Committee shall consist entirely of independent non-executive directors. The Chief Executive Officer attends Committee meetings by invitation but does not attend in relation to matters that can affect him.

The Committee has an established work plan which allows it to review all major human resource policies, strategies and outcomes.

Director Remuneration

The Constitution and the ASX Listing Rules specify that the aggregate remuneration of non-executive directors shall be determined from time to time by a general meeting. An amount not exceeding the amount determined, is divided between the directors as they agree. The policy of the Board is that the aggregate amount should be set at a level which provides the Bank with the necessary degree of flexibility to enable it to attract and retain the services of directors of the highest calibre. The latest determination was at the Annual General Meeting held on 28 October 1999 when shareholders approved an aggregate remuneration of $1,500,000 per year. The Nominations Committee reviews the fees payable to non-executive directors. Details of individual directors’ remuneration are set out in Note 5. Directors’ fees do not incorporate any bonus or incentive element.

In August 2000, the Board approved the introduction of the Non-Executive Directors’ Share Plan which requires the acquisition of shares by Non-Executive Directors at market price through the mandatory application of 20% of their annual fees. Details of this Plan were set out in the Notice of Meeting to the 2000 Annual General Meeting.

In July 2002 the Board discontinued the retirement scheme which provided for benefits to be paid to non-executive directors. The terms of this scheme, which were approved by shareholders at the 1997 Annual General Meeting, allowed for a benefit on a pro rata basis to a maximum of four years’ total emoluments after twelve years’ service. The entitlements of the non-executive directors at the time of discontinuance will not be affected but no new members after that time will be admitted to the scheme.

Chief Executive Officer Remuneration

The remuneration of Mr Murray (Chief Executive Officer) is fixed by the Board, pursuant to the Constitution, as part of the terms and conditions of his appointment. Those terms and conditions are established in a contract of employment with Mr Murray which was effective from 2 July 2001, with remuneration subject to review, from time to time, by the Board.

Executive Remuneration

The Group's Policy in respect of Executives is that:

Incentive payments for Executives, including the Chief Executive Officer, are related to performance. Short-term incentives actually paid depend on the extent to which operating targets set at the beginning of the financial year are achieved. Half of the short-term incentive earned is paid in cash and the balance in two instalments at yearly intervals in shares. These instalments are paid only if the Executive is still in the employ of the Bank on the relevant dates.

Vesting of options and shares allocated under the long-term incentive plan is directly related to shareholder value, measured by Total Shareholder Return over a minimum three-year period, which requires the return to be equal to, or higher than, the average return of peer institutions for vesting to occur.

As approved by the shareholders at the 2000 Annual General Meeting, vesting of options and restricted shares allocated to Executives is dependent on the Bank meeting the performance hurdles in the plan.

The Bank has restructured its long-term Executive incentive plan, effective from the beginning of the 2003 financial year. Previously, half the value of long-term incentive benefits under the shareholder approved Bank’s Equity Reward Plan were paid in Options, valued on the Black-Scholes method, and the other half in Performance shares valued at market price at the date of allocation. These options and shares only vest to the Executive provided the prescribed performance hurdles are met. From the beginning of the 2003 financial year, options have been eliminated from the remuneration package of Executives and the total value of the long-term incentives allocated under the Equity Reward Plan from that date is in the form of Reward shares.

A further change introduced is that whereas previously allocated options and shares vested upon the average Total Shareholder Return of peer institutions being exceeded, a sliding scale has been introduced so that 50% of allocated shares vest if the Bank’s TSR is equal to the average return, 75% vest at the 67th percentile in the index and 100% when the return exceeds the 75th percentile, i.e. when the Bank’s return is in the top quartile.

Options and shares previously allocated under the Equity Reward Plan will continue until they vest upon the prescribed performance hurdles being met, or they lapse.

Currently, restricted shares purchased on market to satisfy incentives earned by Executives are charged against profit and loss as are incentives paid in cash and in deferred shares. As from the beginning of the 2003 financial year, total remuneration, which includes the full cost of the plan and also the distribution of shares to employees under the ESAP, has been expensed against profits.

Details of the remuneration paid to the Chief Executive Officer and the five highest paid other members of the senior executive team who were officers of the Bank at 30 June 2003 are set out in Note 6.

Audit Arrangements

Audit Committee

The Charter of the Audit Committee incorporates a number of policies and practices to ensure that the Committee is independent and effective. Among these are:

In carrying out these functions, the Committee:

In addition, the Committee ratifies the Group's operational risk policies for approval by the Board and reviews and informs the Board of the measurement and management of operational risk. Operational risk is a basic line management responsibility within the Group consistent with the policies established by the Committee. A range of insurance policies maintained by the Group mitigates some operational risks.

The Committee regularly considers, in the absence of management and the external auditor, the quality of the information received by the Committee and, in considering the financial statements, discusses with management and the external auditor:

The external audit partner attends meetings of the Audit Committee by invitation and attends the Board meetings when the annual and half yearly accounts are approved and signed.

Non-Audit Work

The Board has in place policies and procedures governing the nature of non-audit services which can and cannot be undertaken by the Bank’s auditors for the Bank or its subsidiaries. These policies and procedures incorporate approval by the Audit Committee of all non-audit services. The objective of this policy is to avoid prejudicing the independence of the auditors and to prevent their developing undue reliance on revenue from the Bank.

The policy ensures that the auditor does not:

Under the policy, the auditor shall not provide the following services:

For non-audit services that are not expressly prohibited, the following Audit Committee approval processes apply:

Non-audit services are defined as any service provided by the external auditor under engagement with the Bank outside the scope of the external audit. The scope of the external audit is outlined in the Bank’s annual audit engagement letter.

The Bank currently requires that the partner managing the audit for the external auditor be changed within a period of five years.


Ernst & Young was appointed as the auditor of the Bank at the 1996 Annual General Meeting and continues in that office.

The Chief Executive Officer is authorised to appoint and remove the chief internal audit executive in consultation with the Audit Committee.

Risk Management

Risk Committee

The Risk Committee oversees credit and market risks assumed by the Bank in the course of carrying on its business.

The Committee considers the Group’s credit policies and ensures that management maintains a set of credit underwriting standards designed to achieve portfolio outcomes consistent with the Group’s risk/return expectations. In addition, the Committee reviews the Group’s credit portfolios and recommendations by management for provisioning for bad and doubtful debts.

The Committee approves risk management policies and procedures for market, funding and liquidity risks incurred or likely to be incurred in the Group’s business. The Committee reviews progress in implementing management procedures and identifying new areas of exposure relating to market, funding and liquidity risk.


The Bank has in place an integrated risk management framework to identify, assess, manage and report risks and risk adjusted returns on a consistent and reliable basis.

Nominations Committee

The Nominations Committee of the Board critically reviews, at least annually, the corporate governance procedures of the Bank and the composition and effectiveness of the Commonwealth Bank Board and the boards of the major wholly owned subsidiaries. The policy of the Board is that the Committee shall consist solely of independent non-executive directors and that the Chairman of the Bank shall be Chairman of the Committee. The Chief Executive Officer attends the meeting by invitation.

In addition to its role in proposing candidates for director appointment for consideration by the Board, the Committee reviews fees payable to non-executive directors and reviews, and advises the Board in relation to Chief Executive Officer succession planning.

Continuous Disclosure

The Corporations Act 2001 and the ASX Listing Rules require that a company disclose to the market matters which could be expected to have a material effect on the price or value of the company’s securities. Management processes are in place throughout the Commonwealth Bank Group to ensure that all material matters which may potentially require disclosure are promptly reported to the Chief Executive Officer, through established reporting lines, or as a part of the deliberations of the Bank’s Executive Committee. Matters reported are assessed and, where required by the Listing Rules, advised to the market. The Company Secretary is responsible for communications with the ASX and for ensuring that such information is not released to any person until the ASX has confirmed its release to the market.

Ethical Policies

Values Statement

The Bank demands the highest standards of honesty and loyalty from all its people and strong governance within the Bank.

Our values statement - "trust, honesty and integrity" - reflects this standard.

Statement of Professional Practice

The Bank has adopted a code of ethics, known as a Statement of Professional Practice which sets standards of behaviour required of all employees including:

These standards are regularly communicated to staff. In addition, the Bank has established insider trading guidelines for staff to ensure that unpublished price-sensitive information about the Bank or any other company is not used in an illegal manner.

Our People

The Bank is committed to providing fair, safe, challenging and rewarding work, recognising the importance of attracting and retaining the best staff and consequently, being in a position to provide good service to our customers.

There are various policies and systems in place to enable achievement of these goals, including:

Behaviour Issues

The Bank is strongly committed to maintaining an ethical workplace, complying with legal and ethical responsibilities. Policy requires staff to report fraud, corrupt conduct, mal-administration or serious and substantial waste by others. A system has been established, which allows staff to remain anonymous if they wish, for reporting of these matters.

The policy has been extended to include reporting of auditing and accounting issues which will be reported directly to the Chief Compliance Officer. The Chief Compliance Officer reports any such matters to the Audit Committee, noting the status of resolution and actions to be taken.

Governance Philosophy

The Board has consistently placed great importance on the governance of the Bank, which it believes is vital to the wellbeing of the corporation. The Bank has adopted a comprehensive framework of Corporate Governance Guidelines which are designed to properly balance performance and conformance and thereby allow the Bank to undertake, in an effective manner, the prudent risk-taking activities which are the basis of its business.